First of all, this is for educational purposes only! Its not my fault if you go and use this information to do something illegal. Use your powers for good, and not evil.
- 1 - Getting their IP Address
There are lots of ways you can get a target's IP Address. The most well known is probably inspecting their email headers. In GMail, you can see their headers by simply pressing a
small down arrow button next to the message in the GMail web client. But my favorite method is probably using http://whatstheirip.com. Go to that website and enter your email. It will generate a few links for you that look like forum posts. Give one to your target, and if he/she visits it you will receive an email with their IP. The page just looks like a standard 'Page Doesn't Exist' error so your target won't get suspicious. Once you have their IP Address go on over to http://www.ipaddress.com
and enter their IP to see their ISP, operating system, hostname, and general location. The location only pinpoint to about state or province, because it put me a couple cities away from where I really live.
Knowing their email is valuable knowledge. You could trick your target into sending you an email. You could tell them you have a file or something they should see and tell them to give you or email address, or you could ask one of their friends for their email. If they /their friends don't trust you, try using what I call a 'Physical Proxy'. Ask on of your friends to ask them / one of their friends for their email so it's less suspicious. But once you have their email, you can try several more things to find out more about your target. Try entering their email into Facebook search. If they have an account, at a minimum, you can find out their name, but if your lucky you can find out their address, phone number, etc.
If you have your targets phone number, you can do a reverse phone number search at 411.com. This will get you their name and exact address. If you have their name and city/state/or zip code, try doing a people search on 411.com. You can find out their state by doing a search on ipaddress.com.